Médée

Médée

Oper in drei Akten

Libretto

Nicolas Etienne Framéry (François Benoît Hoffmann), nach der Tragödie von Pierre Corneille

Uraufführung

13. März 1797, Paris (Théâtre Feydeau)

Besetzung

KREON, König von Korinth (Bariton)
GLAUKE, seine Tochter (Sopran)
JASON, ihr Verlobter (Tenor)
MEDEA, seine Gattin (Sopran)
NERIS, ihre Vetraute (Alt)
EUCHARIS, Glaukes Vertraute (Sopran)
HAUPTMANN DER WACHE (Bass)
DIE BEIDEN KINDER JASONS UND MEDEAS (stumme Rollen)

Dienerinnen, Hofstaat, die Argonauten, Priester, Krieger, Volk von Korinth

Ort

Korinth (Griechenland)

Zeit

antike Sagenwelt

Cherubini, Luigi

Cherubini, (Maria) Luigi (Carlo Zanobio Salvatore)
14.9.1760 Firenze - 15.3.1842 Paris


Bühnenwerke
mit Datum/Ort der Uraufführung:

Amore artigiano (22.10.1773 Fiesole)
Il giuocatore (1775)
NT (16.2.1778 Firenze)
Il Quinto Fabio (1779 Alessandria; 1.1783 Roma)
Armida abbandonata (25.1.1782 Firenze)
Adriano in Siria (16.4.1782 Livorno)
Mesenzio re d'Etruria (6.9.1782 Firenze)
Lo sposo di tre e marito di nessuna (11.1783 Venezia)
Olimpiade (c.1783)
L'Alessandro nell'Indie (1784 Mantova)
L'Idalide (26.12.1784 Firenze)
La finta principessa (2.4.1785 London)
Il Giulio Sabino (30.3.1786 London)
Ifigenia in Aulide (12.1.1788 Torino)
Démophon (2.12.1788 Paris)
La Molinarella (31.10.1789 Paris)
Marguerite d'Anjou (1790 Paris?)
Lodoïska (18.7.1791 Paris)
Koukourgi (1793)
Eliza, ou Le Voyage aux glaciers du Mont St-Bernard (23.2.1794 Paris)
Médée (13.3.1797 Paris)
L'Hôtellerie portugaise (25.7.1798 Paris)
La Punition (23.2.1799 Paris)
La Prisonnière (12.9.1799 Paris) [+ Boieldieu]
Les Deux journées, ou Le Porteur d'eau (16.1.1800 Paris)
Epicure (14.3.1800 Paris) [+ Méhul]
Anacréon, ou L'Amour fugitif (4.10.1803 Paris)
Faniska (25.2.1806 Wien)
Pimmalione (30.11.1809 Paris)
Le Crescendo (30.9.1810 Paris)
Les Abencérages, ou L'Étendard de Grenade (6.4.1813 Paris)
Bayard à Mézières (12.2.1814 Paris) [+ Boieldieu et al.]
Blanche de Provence, ou La Cour de fées (1.5.1821 Paris) [+ Berton et al.]
La Marquise de Brinvilliers (31.10.1831 Paris [et al.]
Ali-Baba, ou Les Quarante voleurs (22.7.1833 Paris)



VORGESCHICHTE
Jason hat im Auftrag seines Onkels Pelias mit den Argonauten nach vielen Abenteuern das goldene Vlies von Kolchis nach Griechenland geholt, wobei ihm Medea half, neben anderen Gefahren auch den Wächter des goldenen Felles, einen Drachen, zu überwinden. Als der Held zurückkehrte, betrog ihn der König um den ausgemachten Lohn und trachtete ihm nach dem Leben. Jason flüchtete nach Korinth, wo er zehn Jahre glücklich mit Medea lebte, die ihm zwei Söhne schenkte. Dann bezauberte die junge Glauke sein Herz und überredete ihn, Medea zu verlassen und sie zu heiraten.

ERSTER AKT
Am Morgen des Hochzeitsfestes ist die Königstochter voll banger Ahnungen, doch wird sie von ihrer Vertrauten Eucharis und den Gespielinnen aufgeheitert. Trotzdem fürchtet die junge Braut die Rache der Zauberin Medea und sucht Schutz bei ihrem Vater, König Kreon. Dieser versucht, seine Tochter zu beruhigen, und versichert, dass Medeas Zauberkräfte erloschen seien und Jason seine Frau nicht mehr liebe. Als gemeldet wird, dass Jason seiner Braut das goldene Vlies schenken wolle, erfasst Glauke neuer Schrecken. Vergeblich bemüht sich ihr Verlobter, sie zu trösten. Auch die Anrufung der Götter kann die Verstörte nicht besänftigen, zumal eine tief verschleierte Frau - Medea - im Palast erscheint und ihren Mann zurückfordert. Während die Braut ohnmächtig wird und alle entsetzt fliehen, weist Jason die Bitten seiner Frau brüsk zurück. Auch die Erinnerung an ihre glücklich zusammen verbrachte Zeit kann sein Herz nicht erweichen. Kreon kommt zurück und fordert Medea auf, Korinth zu verlassen. Medea verflucht das ganze Haus.

ZWEITER AKT
Medea hat den Palast ungehindert verlassen können. Draussen tobt das Volk und fordert den Tod der Zauberin. Kreon erklärt sich bereit, die Bedrohte zu schützen, wenn sie aus Korinth für immer gehe. Medea willigt ein und bittet nur noch um einen Tag Aufschub, um sich von ihren Kindern verabschieden zu können, die Jason bereits an sich genommen hat. Vergeblich versucht sie, nochmals ihren Mann zurückzugewinnen; er eilt zum Hochzeitsfest. Medea beauftragt Neris, Glauke einen Schleier, in den Geheimnisse eingewebt seien, als Geschenk zu überbringen und ihre Kinder zu holen. Neris übergibt das Geschenk, auf das Medea ein tödliches Gift geträufelt hat.

DRITTER AKT
Medea begrüsst ihre Söhne, die Nerls gebracht hat, und weiss nicht, wie sie sich verhalten soll. Schwankend zwischen Mutterliebe und Hass auf Jason, tötet sie nach einigem Zögern die Knaben, während aus dem Palast zu hören ist, dass Glauke gestorben sei. Jason und das herbeieilende Volk sehen entsetzt, dass auch die Kinder tot sind. Medea entweicht auf einem von Drachen gezogenen Wagen, nachdem sie Jason versichert hat, sie würden sich erst im Reich der Schatten wiedersehen. Eine Feuersbrunst, durch den Funken schlagenden Wagen verursacht, legt den Königspalast in Schutt und Asche.

HISTORY
Pelias, usurping king of Iolcos and uncle of Jason, son of the rightful king, sent Jason on the dangerous quest for the Golden Fleece at Colchis, hoping that he would be killed. With the ship Argo and a crew consisting of the greatest heroes of Greece Jason reached Colchis, where Medea, a witch, daughter of King Aeetes, fell in love with him and helped him carry out the apparently impossible tasks set by her father.

As they were escaping with the Golden Fleece, Medea cut her brother Absyrtus to pieces and threw them overboard, so that her father had to stop his pursuit and collect the pieces for burial. When they reached Iolcos, Medea caused the death of Pelias by persuading his daughters to kill him, having promised that she would magically restore his youth.

Medea and Jason then took refuge in Corinth, where they lived for some years with their two sons, until Jason tired of Medea and decided to marry the daughter of King Creon of Corinth.

ACT I
A gallery in Creon's palace

On the eve of her marriage to Jason, Dirce, Creon's daughter, has forebodings. Her father assures Jason that he will protect his sons by Medea from the vengeance of the sons of King Pelias. Jason lays the Golden Fleece at the feet of Dirce and tries to calm her fears by telling her she has nothing to fear from Medea. Creon joins them in praying for a happy marriage.
The captain of the guard announces the arrival of a woman claiming to be a priestess of Apollo, but she reveals herself as Medea, telling the people not to fear her, as her resentment is directed only against Jason. When Creon challenges her, she assures him that he and his have nothing to fear unless he encourages Jason in his desertion of her, but he warns her that any crime will be punished with death.
When she reproaches Jason with ingratitude towards the sacrifices she has made on his account, he answers her mildly, urging her to respect the laws of Corinth, but when she persists, he repudiates her, declaring that they now have nothing in common. She calls on the gods to witness that he will not marry Dirce.

Jason urges her to flee the wrath of Creon which she has aroused and she promises to leave him with a bitter memory before he dies.

ACT II
A wing of Creon's palace, with the temple of Juno opposite

Medea rages at having been forbidden to see her children again and calls on the Furies to assist her revenge. Her attendant Neris warns her that the people are demanding her blood and that the king supports them. Creon tells her that he will spare her, as requested by Jason, but she must leave the city at once, explaining that he fears her black arts. He does grant her request for a day's grace and she resolves to make good use of it.
Neris fears that she has something terrible in mind as Medea, already determined on the death of Dirce, seeks further ways of punishing Jason, thinking, with a shudder of horror, of killing their children. When Jason offers her comfort and help in her exile, she demands her children. When he refuses, she realises that he loves them and is confirmed in her resolve to kill them. He accedes to her request to be allowed to see them again and promises that they may stay with her till she leaves. He bids her farewell and tells her he wishes her to be happy.
She tells Neris she no longer loves the children, thinking of them only as Jason's. She gives Neris a rich robe and crown, steeped in poison, for her children to take as a present to Dirce. Medea watches as Creon, Jason and Dirce go to the temple for the marriage ceremony, calling on the gods to remember the similar vows Jason had once made to her.

ACT III
A temple on the crest of a mountain near the palace

Medea waits for her children, still meditating their deaths, but when Neris brings them, she is unable to suppress her maternal feelings until thoughts of Jason rekindle her purpose. Neris reports that Dirce has put on the poisoned robe and crown. Medea overcomes her reluctance to kill the children and as distant cries indicate that the people are coming to kill her in revenge for the death of Dirce, she retreats into the temple with them.
When Jason arrives, at the head of the crowd, Neris tells him of Medea's intentions, but he is too late, as Medea appears on the threshold, dagger in hand, surrounded by the Furies, to tell him the deed is done.
Refusing to let him perform the last rites or even see the bodies, she tells him that she will meet him in Hades and disappears into the air.
ATTO PRIMO
La scena è in Corinto. Dircé, figlia di Créon re di Corinto, attende con ansia le sue nozze con Jason, impaurita dal pensiero di Médée, la precedente moglie che l’Argonauta intende ripudiare. Le ancelle la consolano (“Quoi, lorsque tout s’empresse”). La fanciulla teme la vendetta della maga di Colchide e implora quindi il dio d’amore d’infonderle forza per affrontare il confronto con la feroce rivale. Entrano in scena Créon, Jason e gli Argonauti: il re rassicura l’eroe sulla sorte dei figli che ha avuto da Médée, e Jason lo ringrazia. Il re e sua figlia assistono allora al corteo degli Argonauti, che portano in trionfo il vello d’oro conquistato in Colchide. A quel nome, tuttavia, si accresce l’angoscia di Dircé, subito consolata dal promesso sposo e dal padre, che invoca gli dèi perché proteggano la giovane coppia (“Dieux et déesses tutélaires”). Il capo delle guardie però avverte in quel punto che una donna misteriosa si aggira per il palazzo: costei avanza in scena e si rivela per Médée, giunta a rivendicare i diritti dei figli di fronte allo sposo fedifrago e a maledire le sue nuove nozze. Le si oppone Créon, che minaccia la maga e si ritira. Rimasta sola con Jason, Médée cerca di toccare il cuore di lui col pensiero dei figli (“Vous voyez de vos fils la mère infortunée”), ma invano. Ella allora maledice Jason e annuncia vendetta: entrambi maledicono il vello, che è costato così tanta infelicità (“Perfides ennemis... O fatale toison”).

ATTO SECONDO
In un’ala del palazzo di Créon, Médée medita vendetta. Néris, la sua ancella, cerca invano di persuaderla a lasciare Corinto e a salvarsi dall’ira popolare. Entra Créon col suo seguito e intima a Médée di lasciare la città. Costei ottiene tuttavia, con le sue preghiere, di trattenersi ancora per un giorno (“Ah, du moins à Médée accordez un asyle”). Néris cerca allora di consolare Médée, e le promette di starle sempre al fianco (aria con fagotto obbligato “Ah, nos peines seront communes”). Uscita dal suo abbattimento, la maga comincia a individuare l’obiettivo della sua vendetta: saranno i figli suoi e di Jason. È proprio l’eroe che allora si avanza e a lui Médée si finge addolorata per l’imminente separazione dalle sue creature. I due rievocano i giorni felici del loro amore (duetto “Chers enfants, il faut donc que je vous abandonne”). Partito Jason, Médée ordina all’ancella di recare a Dircé in dono di nozze il manto e la corona che ella stessa ebbe un giorno da Apollo. Il re e la corte entrano nel tempio di Giunone per un rito e i loro canti si fondono in grandioso contrasto alle violente minacce di Médée, che infine si allontana con in mano una torcia fiammeggiante.

ATTO TERZO
Su una montagna presso la reggia di Corinto, Médée invoca gli dèi perché le diano la forza di compiere la sua vendetta sui figli. Néris però le conduce i piccoli, e la madre, vinta dalla compassione e dall’amore, lascia cadere il pugnale. No, la sua vendetta avrà altri per strumento, e Médée rivela a Néris che i doni nuziali inviati a Dircé erano avvelenati (“Du trouble affreux qui me dévore”). Dircé conduce allora i bimbi nel tempio, ma improvvisamente si riaccende in Médée la smania di ucciderli (“O Tysiphone, implacable déesse”). Dal tempio giungono voci sinistre: Créon e Dircé sono morti avvelenati dai doni della maga. Jason accorre per arrestare Médée, ma questa, raccolto il pugnale, fugge nel tempio e consuma il suo orrendo delitto anche contro i figli. È Néris a dare il tremendo annuncio a Jason: esce dal tempio e a stento riesce a comunicare la ferale notizia. Médée, circondata dalle Eumenidi (le Furie), esce dal tempio; ha ancora in mano la lama insanguinata e si presenta allo sposo giustificando il proprio gesto con la sua giusta vendetta. Le sue maledizioni si arrestano soltanto quando intorno a lei si levano le fiamme, che poi circondano il tempio e l’intera scena, nel terrore generale.

Bitte lesen und beachten Sie die Copyright-Bestimmungen, bevor Sie eine Datei herunterladen!

Partitur

download