Jenufa

Jenufa

Jeji pastorkyna
Oper aus dem mährischen Bauernleben in drei Akten

Libretto

Leos Janacek, nach dem Schauspiel von Gabriela Preissová

Uraufführung

21. Januar1904, Brünn (Nationaltheater)

Besetzung

Starenka Buryjovka (DIE ALTE BURYA), Altenteilerin und Hausfrau in der Mühle (Alt)
LACA KLEMEN, Stiefenkel der alten Burya (Tenor)
STEVA BURYA, Enkel der alten Burya (Tenor)
Kostelnicka Buryjovka (DIE KÜSTERIN), Schwiegertochter der alten Burya, Witwe (Sopran)
JENUFA, ihre Ziehtochter (Sopran)
ALTGESELL (Bariton)
RYCHTAR, Dorfrichter (Bass)
RYCHTARKA, seine Frau (Mezzosopran)
KAROLKA, ihre Tochter (Mezzosopran)
PASTUCHYNA, Hirtin (Mezzosopran)
BARENA, Magd in der Mühle (Sopran)
JANO, Hirtenjunge (Sopran)
TETKA, alte Dörflerin (Alt)

CHOR:
Rekruten, Müllerburschen, Gesinde, Dorfleute

BALLETT:
Burschen und Mädchen

Ort

Mährisches Gebirgsdorf. In der Mühle der alten Burya und in der Stube der Küsterin

Zeit

Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts - Zwischen dem 1. und 2. Akt liegt ein halbes Jahr, zwischen den 2. und 3. Akt sind zwei Monate vergangen

Janácek, Leos

Janácek, Leos
3.7.1854 Hukvaldy - 12.8.1928 Ostrava


Bühnenwerke
mit Datum/Ort der Uraufführung:

Sárka (1888)
Pocatek románu (10.2.1894 Brno)
Její pastorkyna [Jenufa] (21.1.1904 Brno)
Osud (1904)
Osud [rev] (1906; 18.9.1934 Brno*; 25.10.1958 Brno)
Její pastorkyna [rev] (1906)
Její pastorkyna [rev 2] (1911)
Její pastorkyna [rev 3] (26.5.1916 Praha)
Sárka [rev] (1919) [+ Chlubna]
Výlety páne Brouckovy (23.4.1920 Praha)
Káta Kabanová (23.11.1921 Brno)
Príhody lisky Bystrousky (6.11.1923 Brno)
Sárka [rev 2] (11.11.1925 Brno)
Vec Makropulos (18.12.1926 Brno)
Z mrtvého domu (12.4.1930 Brno) [+ Chlubna, Bakala]
rev = Bearbeitung / * = konzertant (Radio)



ERSTER AKT
Die hübsche Jenufa wird von den Brüdern Stewa und Laca geliebt; der leichtsinnige Stewa hat bei ihr Gehör gefunden. Jenufa wartet ängstlich, ob Stewa zum Militär muss, weil sie von ihm ein Kind erwartet. Niemand, auch nicht Jenufas Ziehmutter, hat bis jetzt etwas davon gemerkt. Da kommt der Altgeselle mit der Nachricht, dass Stewa vom Dienst befreit worden ist. Umgeben von Rekruten erscheint Stewa angetrunken, wirft Geld um sich und lässt zum Tanz aufspielen. Die Küsterin macht dem ausgelassenen Treiben ein Ende und beschliesst, ihm Jenufa erst nach einem Jahr, wenn er sich gebessert habe, zur Frau zu geben. Jenufa ist verzweifelt und verabschiedet sich von Stewa. Laca wirbt um das Mädchen und zerkratzt ihr, als sie ihn wieder abweist, mit einem Messer das schöne Gesicht.

ZWEITER AKT
Jenufa musste ihrer Ziehmutter das Geheimnis mitteilen und wird von ihr im Haus verborgen. Stewa kümmert sich nicht mehr um Jenufa, seit er ihr zerschnittenes Gesicht gesehen hat, und will jetzt entgegen dem Willen der Küsterin die hübsche Karolka heiraten. Inzwischen ist ein halbes Jahr vergangen und das Kind geboren worden, das die Küsterin tauft. Als Laca erneut um Jenufa wirbt, wird er nicht mehr abgewiesen. Die Küsterin hat ihm alles, was vorgefallen ist, gesagt und erklärt, dass das Kind gestorben sei. Als Laca gegangen ist, gibt die Küsterin Jenufa einen Schlaftrunk und trägt das Kind in die Winterkälte hinaus. Gegenüber Jenufa gibt die Küsterin vor, dass ihr Kind, während sie zwei Tage im Fieber lag, gestorben ist.

DRITTER AKT
Zwei Monate später wird zur Hochzeit Jenufas mit Laca geladen. Die Gäste erscheinen, darunter auch Stewa und Karolka. Man tanzt und singt, die Küsterin segnet das junge Paar. Plötzlich stürzt ein Schäferjunge herein, der unter deim Eis eine Kindesleiche gefunden hat. Die Leute bedrohen Jenufa, bis die Küsterin gesteht, dass sie das Kind getötet hat. Karolka erkennt, dass Stewa an allem Schuld war und läuft empört davon. Jenufa und Laca, der selbst Gewissensbisse hat, finden endgültig zusammen.

The principal figures in "Jenufa" represent three generations of one family. Grandmother Buryja had two sons, the elder of whom married the widow Klemen, who already had one son, Laca. They had one son Steva, who inherited the family mill.
The second son, widowed, with a daughter, Jenufa, married the Kostelnicka (female sacristan, so called because she tended the village church) as his second wife, and she brought up Jenufa as her own child.

ACT I
The courtyard of the mill, Jenufa anxiously watches for the arrival of her sweetheart Steva, fearing that he may be conscripted and their wedding postponed, which would bring her shame as she is pregnant. When her grandmother reproves her for not attending to her work, Laca (who is watching Jenufa) reproaches her for neglecting him as a child, in favor of his half-brother, Steva. Jenufa, who fears he has detected her secret, speaks sharply to him. Jano the shepherd boy runs in announcing that Jenufa has taught him to read.
Asking the mill foreman to sharpen his knife, Laca teases Jenufa and when she turns on him, he remarks what a fine sister-in-law she will make, but the foreman is not deceived about the nature of Laca's feelings. Laca's hopes that Steva has been conscripted are dashed - the foreman has just learnt that Steva has not been taken. Steva appears with other lads from the village, accompanied by musicians.
Jenufa is upset because he is drunk, but he orders the musicians to play her favorite song and leads everyone into a dance, which comes to an abrupt halt when the Kostlenicka appears. She tells Steva that he is not yet fit to marry Jenufa - he must go for a year without getting drunk before she will consider it. Jenufa tries to plead with her, but she answers that God will punish her if she disobeys. Only Laca is delighted and kisses her hand.
Jenufa begs Steva not to antagonise her stepmother, as she will be shamed if the wedding has to be put off. His idea of comforting her is to tell her how much all the girls admire him, but to him she is the prettiest of all, with her cheeks like rosy apples.
The grandmother calls him inside and Laca again comes up to Jenufa. They quarrel and his knife accidentally slashes her cheek. He cries out in remorse that he has loved her all his life, while the foreman accuses him of having done it on purpose.

ACT II
Inside the Kostelnicka's house, some months later Jenufa has had her baby, unknown to the village, as the Kostelnicka has kept her indoors and given out that she has gone to Vienna. Sending Jenufa to bed with a sleeping draught, the Kostelnicka prepares to receive Steva, who has not been near Jenufa since her accident and still does not know about the birth of the baby. Although she hates him, she is prepared to humble herself for Jenufa's sake.
But Steva refuses to aknowledge the baby, though he is willing to support it. Despite the entreaty of the Kostelnicka, he refuses to marry Jenufa, saying she has lost her beauty and become as witch-like as the Kostelnicka, whom he fears. Besides, he is going to marry the mayor's daughter, Karolka.
His departure is followed immediately by the arrival of Laca, who has been a constant visitor to the Kostelnicka, though unaware of Jenufa's presence and of the existence of the baby. Although he wants to marry Jenufa, he is appalled to learn about the child, so the Kostelnicka tells him it has died. Sending him on an errand, she takes the baby to the icy river.
Jenufa awakes and misses the baby, a boy called Steva. She calms her fears by telling herself that the Kostelnicka must have taken him to the mill to show everyone and comforts herself with the thought that Steva will now come to see her and the baby. She prays for the child. The Kostelnicka comes back without the baby and tells Jenufa that she has been in a fever for days and that the baby died. She also tells her that Steva refused to have anything to do with her or the baby, and advises her to marry Laca, a man she can trust. He knows everything and has forgiven her.
He returns and Jenufa yields to his entreaties and the urgings of the Kostelnicka and agrees to marry him. The Kostelnicka blesses them and curses Steva. The window blows open and she cries that the icy hand of death is forcing its way in.

ACT III
As in Act II, some months later. It is spring and Jenufa and Laca are about to be married. Although she is pleased, the Kostelnicka's health is weakened by her burden of guilt.
Jenufa tells Laca he deserves a better bride, but he repeats that he has forgiven her and reminds her of the wrong he did her, for which he intends to spend his life atoning. He tells her he is now reconciled with Steva, who is coming to the wedding with Karolka. When they arrive Jenufa gets the brothers to shake hands and tells Steva she is glad he has found true love.
The village girls sing a wedding song and the grandmother blesses Jenufa and Laca. Jano rushes in with the news that a baby's body has been found under the melting ice in the river. Jenufa recognises the clothes, but cannot understand how her baby was found in the river. The villagers think she has killed her child and are ready to stone her, but Laca defends her furiously. The Kostelnicka confesses, explaining that she committed the murder to save Jenufa from shame. Jenufa shrinks from her in horror. Realising that Steva is the father of the baby, Karolka refuses to marry him.
The Kostelnicka now realises that she had been thinking more of herself than of Jenufa, but Jenufa finds the strength to forgive her as she is led away by the mayor.
Jenufa offers to relase Laca, but he refuses to leave her and she realises that she now truly loves him. They prepare to face the future together.
ATTO PRIMO
Jenufa è la figlia adottiva della Kostelnicka, l’austera sagrestana della chiesa di un paesino della Slovacchia morava. È amata da due fratellastri: il ricco Števa, del quale è promessa sposa, e il povero Laca, prostrato da un rabbioso dolore per non essere il preferito. Jenufa attende un figlio da Števa e aspetta al mulino il suo ritorno dalla commissione di leva. Se egli dovesse partire per il servizio militare e non si potesse celebrare subito il matrimonio, la sua gravidanza verrebbe scoperta, a suo disonore. È tesa e preoccupata. La vecchia Buryja la invita ad aiutarla nel lavoro. Laca la stuzzica, senza riuscire a suscitare interesse in lei. Jenufa si mostra una giovane buona e istruita: ha infatti insegnato a scrivere al pastorello Jano, che giunge entusiasta a mostrarle i suoi progressi. Laca confida al mugnaio che spera di veder partire soldato il rivale Števa; invece questi è stato esonerato e arriva al mulino completamente ubriaco per la felicità con un gruppo di musicanti. Jenufa lo richiama alle proprie responsabilità, ma Števa non ha voglia di pensare al matrimonio. Tutti danzano, ma la festa viene interrotta da Kostelnicka, che, vedendo Števa ubriaco, impone che il matrimonio con Jenufa sia rimandato di un anno per verificare se il comportamento del fidanzato mostrerà un miglioramento. Laca torna a tormentare Jenufa; le dice che Števa in lei ama solo il suo splendido volto, non il cuore. Ella, esasperata, lo fa ingelosire a tal punto che questi le sfregia la guancia con un coltello.

ATTO SECONDO
Alcuni mesi dopo. Jenufa ha partorito da pochi giorni il bambino. Tutti la credono a Vienna a servizio, ma lei ha vissuto nella casa della matrigna, nascosta agli occhi del paese. Jenufa è provata ma felice per l’evento. La matrigna la manda a dormire dopo averle somministrato un forte sonnifero. Poi convoca Števa per convincerlo a sposarla. Ma questi non ne vuole sapere: Jenufa non le piace più con il volto sfregiato. È pronto a pagare per il mantenimento del figlio, ma non vuole che la paternità venga svelata, anche perché nel frattempo si è fidanzato con la figlia del sindaco. Kostelnicka convoca allora Laca, che si mostra molto cambiato. È serio, responsabile e pentito del suo gesto: si dichiara pronto a sposare Jenufa, che continua ad amare con grande devozione. Ma quando apprende da Kostelnicka che la figliastra è appena divenuta madre, si irrigidisce per un attimo all’idea di accettare con lei anche un figlio di Števa. Allora Kostelnicka gli racconta che il bambino è morto e lo allontana con una scusa. Dopo qualche momento di straziante riflessione, Kostelnicka decide di sopprimere il bambino ed esce con lui nella tempesta di neve che infuria. Jenufa si sveglia. È allarmata per la scomparsa del bambino e prega la Madonna. Al suo ritorno Kostelnicka mente ancora una volta: le narra che durante i due giorni in cui ella ha dormito il bambino si è ammalato, è morto ed è stato da lei seppellito. Convince quindi Jenufa ad accettare le nozze con Laca, che giunge per dichiararle il suo amore. Mentre i due si parlano, Kostelnicka appare scossa e in preda a oscuri presentimenti di morte.

ATTO TERZO
Nella abitazione di Kostelnicka fervono i preparativi per il matrimonio di Jenufa e Laca. Giunge anche la famiglia del sindaco con Karolka, la nuova fidanzata di Števa, mentre alcune ragazze si esibiscono in una danza popolare nuziale. Gli sposi si inginocchiano per ricevere la benedizione della nonna e anche Kostelnicka, da tempo vittima di crisi nervose per il rimorso del suo delitto, si accinge a benedirli. Ma in quel momento viene data tumultuosamente la notizia che il ghiaccio del ruscello ha restituito il cadavere di un bambino lì abbandonato: Jenufa riconosce gli indumenti del suo bambino. La folla la vuole linciare, ma Laca la difende; nel parapiglia generale emerge la voce della Kostelnicka, che discolpa Jenufa e si confessa autrice dell’infanticidio, fra lo sbigottimento generale. Mentre la donna viene consegnata alla giustizia, Jenufa le accorda il suo perdono; invita quindi Laca ad andarsene insieme a tutti gli altri, ma egli le resta accanto, rinnovandole per l’ennesima volta il suo amore: i due giovani si abbracciano e si incamminano verso la loro futura vita in comune.

Jenufa



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